Technical Collection 1993

CIE 103-1993
978 3 900734 42 8

This volume contains short Technical Reports, Research Notes and Reporters' Reports prepared by our Divisions, Technical Committees and Reporters in 1992/1993:

103/1 Colour Appearance Analysis

Traditional colorimetry in itself is unable to define the appearance of a colour. What are required are measures that accurately correlate with the perceived hue, saturation, chroma, colourfulness, lightness and brightness of the coloured samples when seen under specified viewing conditions.

The Committee has selected two models that adequately predict the appearance of simple coloured stimuli under a light source whose chromaticity is not far from the Planckian locus and with a colour temperature between those of typical daylight and tungsten light.

Four newly formed Technical Committees will follow up the present work:

  • TC 1-27: Specification of Colour Appearance for Reflective Media and Self Luminous Display Comparisons
  • TC 1-32: Prediction of Corresponding Colours
  • TC 1-33: Colour Rendering
  • TC 1-34: Testing of Colour Appearance Models

The following members of TC 1-13 took part in the preparation of this technical report:

  • A. N. Chalmers, South Africa
  • M. B. Halstead, Great Britain
  • R. W. G. Hunt, Great Britain
  • L. Mori, Japan
  • Y. Nayatani, Japan
  • M. R. Pointer, Great Britain (Chair)
  • K. Richter, Germany
  • T. Seim, Norway
  • W.N. Sproson, Great Britain
  • H. Terstiege, Germany
  • G. Tonnquinst, Sweden

103/2 Industrial Lighting and Safety at Work

The task of TC 3-05 "Industrial Lighting and Safety at Work" was to collect information about national rules and recommendations, to analyse the factors of lighting influencing safety at work and to give guidance on techniques for the achievement of those parameters.

As a first step TC 3-05 circulated a questionnaire in two parts:

  • part A asking for national rules and
  • part B for existing research work on industrial lighting and accidents caused by bad lighting.

Part A was responded to by 14 countries, but part B could not be answered because of lack of information. This report summarizes the results of the questionnaire part A and gives guidelines to encourage national research into lighting and accidents.

The following members of TC 3-05 took part in the preparation of this technical report:

  • L. Bedocs, Great Britain
  • G. Debreczeni, Hungary
  • W. S. Fisher, USA
  • H.J. Hentschel, Germany (Chair)
  • L.J. von Maltiz, South Africa
  • M.H.F van Ooyen, The Netherlands
  • J. Parent, France
  • H. Rüschenschmidt, Germany


  • A. Awata, Japan
  • R. Baer, Germany
  • R.E. Jennings, Canada

103/3 Reference Action Spectra for Ultraviolet Induced Erythema and Pigmentation of Different Human Skin Types

Increasing public awareness of acute cutaneous UV reactions created the need to evaluate UV induced erythema and pigmentation for any UV sources without carrying out time consuming and expensive experiments. A practical method is to convolute the spectral power distribution of the UV source with an action spectrum.

For white people with sensitive skin as well as for people with normal skin reactions action spectra for erythema and pigmentation are expressed as sets of exponential equations. When displayed on a log-linear scale each of the four action spectra consists of three straight lines.

These action spectra together with their threshold doses can be used easily to evaluate mathematically the photobiological effects of erythema and pigmentation for different skin types. This can save time and money if natural respectively artificial UV emitting sources have to be compared.

The following members of TC 6-10 took part in the preparation of this technical report:

  • J-U. Arnlong, Germany
  • J-P. Césarini, France
  • S. Ferenczi, Hungary
  • R.W. Gange, Great Britain
  • F. Gschnait, Austria
  • P.C. Hughes, USA
  • K. Krochmann, Germany
  • A. McKinley, Great Britain
  • M.F. Mutzhas, Germany (Chair)
  • L.R. Ronchi, Italy
  • B. Steck, Germany
  • F. Urbach, USA
  • J.C. van de Leun, The Netherlands

103/4 Biologically Effective Emissions and Hazard Potential of Desk-Top Luminaires Incorporating Tungsten Halogen Lamps

The contents of this report represent the combined efforts of the members of TC 6-18 in respect of investigations, both dosimetric and dermatological, concerning the potentially hazardous emissions of tungsten halogen lamps. The results of these investigations are presented as measurement data for a number of desk-top luminaires using tungsten halogen lamps and an

  • analysis of potential hazards to the unprotected skin and eyes and
  • details of a dermatological study of the induction of erythema in humans

The following members of TC 6-18 took part in the preparation of this technical report:

  • J-P. Césarini, France
  • A.F. McKinlay, Great Britain (Chair)
  • C. Meulemans, The Netherlands
  • B. Muel, France

103/5 The Economics of Interior Lighting Maintenance

Mathematical curve fitting has been carried out on the deterioration functions given in CIE 97 for lamp lumen maintenance factor, lamp survival and luminaire maintenance factor, modified exponential functions of the form y = u+(1-u)e-pt proving a good fit in all cases. Formulae have been developed for the annual cost of operating (ACO) lighting systems designed using each of four different types of maintenance programme

    (a) bulk relamping and bulk cleaning,
    (b) bulk plus spot relamping and bulk cleaning,
    (c) spot relamping and bulk cleaning,
    (d) spot relamping and simultaneous spot cleaning.

Where bulk relamping or bulk luminaire cleaning is involved, the maintenance periods which result in the lowest ACO are all shown to be equal to (r-D)1/2, where r is the ratio of the cost of that particular maintenance exercise to the other annual costs of operating the system and D is the initial rate of deterioration of lamp or luminaire output.

Illustrative costings, optimised where appropriate, are computed for each type of maintenance programme for two different types of installation to show that no one programme will invariably lead to the lowest annual cost.

This Report was prepared by A. M. Marsden, Hong Kong.

103/6 Clarification of Maintained Illuminance and Associated Terms

Divisions 3 and 5 have identified a need for clarification of various terms used in CIE reports which are currently being drafted. With the approval of the Board of Administration some definitions are recommended. Any comments should be sent to TC 7-06 care of the Central Bureau.

Normally, lighting level is specified as the average illuminance over a surface or as the average luminance of a surface. The lighting level provided by a lighting installation will decrease gradually throughout the life of the installation. Thus, the basis of CIE recommendations, for example, CIE 97 "Maintenance of Lighting Systems", is the "maintained average illuminance over a surface" or the "maintained average luminance of a surface".

The Technical Collection contains also abstracts of CIE Technical Reports published since 1991. It consists of 68 pages with 12 figures and 11 tables.