Recommended Method for Evaluating the Performance of Colour-Difference Formulae

CIE 217:2016
Division 1

A method is recommended to evaluate the strength of the relationship between visually-perceived colour differences in a given set of colour pairs and their corresponding predictions made by a colour-difference formula. This method is based on the Standardized Residual Sum of Squares (STRESS) index used in multidimensional scaling, and tests if two colour-difference formulae are or are not statistically significantly different. The same index can be also used to compute intra- and inter-observer variability in visual experiments. Beside important advances made in the field of colour-difference evaluation using reliable visual datasets currently available, the results achieved from the STRESS index indicate that it is not possible to recommend a more uniform colour space with a Euclidean colour-difference formula that is statistically significantly better than CIEDE2000.
The publication is written in English, with a short summary in French and German. It consists of 28 pages with 1 figure and 11 tables and is readily available at the National Committees of the CIE or via the CIE Webshop.

The following members of TC 1-55 “Uniform Colour Space for Industrial Colour Difference Evaluation” took part in the preparation of this Technical Report. The committee comes under Division 1 “Colour and Vision”.


  • Melgosa, M. (Chair 2005–2015) Spain
  • Nobbs, J. (Chair 1999–2005) United Kingdom
  • Alman, D.H. USA
  • Berns, R.S. USA
  • Carter, E.C. USA
  • Cui, G. China
  • Hirschler, R. Hungary
  • Li, C. China
  • Luo, M.R. United Kingdom
  • Oleari, C. Italy
  • Pointer, M.R. United Kingdom
  • Richter, K. Germany
  • Romero, J. Spain
  • Sato, T. Japan
  • Shamey, R. USA
  • Vik, M. Czech Republic
  • Witt, K. Germany
  • Xin, J.H. China
  • Xu, H. China
  • Yaguchi, H. Japan